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Unification of electromagnetism and gravity - A new Relativity Theory - Selwyn Wright

Einstein’s ether-less relativity, which predicts time travel, is found to be in error (non causal). He believed there was no need of an ether – a propagation medium or substance required to propagate light waves, (similar to water waves requiring water in order to propagate). But an ether-less universe is not possible, it is in direct conflict with the light propagation medium established by Maxwell in 1865. Later Schwarzschild in 1916 confirmed the propagation presence by predicting the medium's contraction, both time and space, around gravitational bodies (space-time distortion). Thus light is not attracted by gravity, it bends passing through the compressed medium. Further it appears that light and gravity are two forms of the same electric field, using the same propagation medium. Although Einstein claimed there was no medium, he actually used one in his field equations, making his predictions causal. A New Relativity (NR) is described based on a medium that predicts Einstein medium based observations, rejects his ether-less predictions that have never been observed and distinguishes between sources and observers in motion, which Einstein’s ether-less relativity cannot do.

Selwyn Wright's New Theory Extension to Einstein’s Relativity has Important Consequences

The overview below is supported by a 40 page summary based on 10 peer reviewed publications presented in 5 countries: China, USA, Morocco, Russia and Sweden in the last three years, available on Dr Wright's website: www.new-relativity.com You may contact him at selwyn.wright [ AT ] ntlworld.com .

Overview

All observations are made possible through electromagnetic (EM) light waves. Light waves require a light propagation medium (ether) to propagate their disturbances, and make their wave equation causal so as to predict wave motion. However, Einstein claimed that EM waves were somehow special, they did not require a propagation medium. Einstein's resulting ether-less predictions included time travel and no absolute time and space, neither of which have been measured. Wave motion without a propagation medium is not possible, Maxwell established the EM propagation medium, and Lorentz used the medium to predict EM wave motion in his Lorentz transform. Reinstating the medium now allows observations to be described naturally, rather than confusion and endless difficulties of concealing their actual events through an artificial ether-less universe. The medium removes all ambiguities and paradoxes present in Einstein's relativity.

Since the advent of H D Well's Time Machine, Star Trek and Doctor Who, it is popular to go time travelling. However, according to the new relativity theory, this cannot be, it's non causal (impossible). It is possible, causally to go back to the past but not to interfere, it has already happened. One can, perhaps view a broken cup reassemble itself, a supernova implode or more macabre see ones ancestors rise from their graves. All these light predictions are causal because they are based on a causal solution of the light wave equation, an expression based on a propagation medium that predicts wave motion. But it is not possible to visit the future, it is not a valid solution, it is non causal, it has not yet occurred. Thus causally, 'time machines' can only visit the past but cannot interfere with what has already happened.

Steady electrical fields and unsteady electric causing EM fields (light), are propagated by a well measured EM propagation medium, established by Maxwell. A medium is the basic conduit that supports any kind of wave propagation; there is no known physics that can account for wave propagation without a propagation medium. A vacuum is no exception, it is filled with an electrical medium having measured properties, electrical permeability (inertia) and electrical permittivity, (stiffness) which gives the medium its springiness, enabling EM waves to ‘bounce’ through the vacuum. For systems stationary in a stationary medium away from large gravitational bodies, clocks ticks at a constant rate and that the rate is the same throughout gravity-free space.

These were the causal descriptions of physics that were recognised to govern EM wave propagation before the 1900’s; they have not been superseded since. However, Einstein in 1905 muddied the waters by making the non causal claim that a propagation medium is not required to propagate light. This is as irrational as saying water waves don’t need water or sound waves can travel between the source and observer without air. Einstein believed Lorentz’s invariant speed of light (no difference in light speed in space or moving with an object) and Michelson and Morley’s (MM) invariant speed of light (no difference in light speed on Earth propagating in and against the direction of the Earth’s motion through space) supported his ether-less position (no medium).

But this is not so, it is not supported by Maxwell’s field equations and his propagation medium. It is shown that Lorentz’s contraction of time and space, resulting in an invariant speed of light, is based on a propagation medium, and that the medium moves with the Earth explaining the MM in a causal (rational) way. Sagnac in 1913 with rotating mirrors actually demonstrated motion with respect to the medium stationary on the Earth’s surface. Relativists who support the ether-less view, argue that these effects can be explained by relativistic theory. But again this is not possible, on Earth relativistic effects are negligible compared to the classical motional propagation time asymmetry (PTA) created around a moving system. Einstein’s measured predictions work because his field equations are based on a medium, which he did not realise. Whereas, his ether-less predictions are non causal (cannot be measured).

Real time continues to move forward, where the EM wave equation determines causality. A new theory has been developed that corrects and extends Einstein’s relativity, giving new insight. Restoring the medium now allows relativistic effects to be explained in a rational way, removing the mystical ether-less predictions. But at the same time, the new theory confirms Einstein’s measured predictions based on a medium. We can now extend the theory to a more general solution of the wave equation, not completed previously. For example, distinction can be made between sources (satellites) and observers (telescopes) in motion, not possible without a medium reference. This is achieved by using three sets of motional transforms (source, observer and medium), rather than the two unspecified in Einstein's relativity.

Systems (atoms and molecules) contract, both time and space, moving through the medium, i.e. time slows and structures shrink in the direction of motion, including people. Therefore, space travel could result in painless slimming; however one should rotate regularly to prevent flattening in one direction. Also, gravity compresses the medium and everything within it, both time and space. So if one wishes to age less than their cousins, then one could go space travelling or reside in a gravity compressed medium around a heavy planet or black hole for a while.

Turning to space travel, colonization of our local universe now seems possible. Distances were considered so large colonization of the universe was physically impossible. However, assuming the speed of light cannot be exceeded in the propagation medium, it can be spectacularly exceeded across what are called hybrid frames. What would normally take millions of years to cross, for instance our local Milky Way galaxy, could be achieved in a life time. After a few generations, our local universe could be reached and colonised. For the expert the medium is the reference distance and the time is measured in the moving frame.

Although like charges attract and unlike charges repel, groups of dissimilar charges (dipoles) with difference fields between positive and negative charges, have a fascinating property, they always attract. Van der Waals, as early as 1873, showed that the near field attraction between induced dipoles (positive and negative charges) in atoms and molecules held them together, creating for example soap films and mercury beads. However, this field decays rapidly with distance and its degree of attractiveness, which decides whether the element is a solid, liquid or gas, is not proportional to its atomic number.

Instead, the gravitational field now appears to be generated by the number of physical dipoles in the atom (electrons in orbit and protons in the nucleus), whose atomic weight is basically proportional to the atomic number (number of dipoles). This means that both light (unsteady electric) and gravity (steady difference electric ) are two forms of the same electric field, using the same propagation medium. Thus light and gravity have a common reference. Einstein, not recognising the medium existence, strived to achieve unification in his later years without success. The medium’s restoration now allows the unification of electromagnetism and gravity.

These new revelations are described with many others in a new book Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravity. The book is a fascinating development of science over the last three hundred years, written in a simple fashion for the thinking layperson to understand but updates aspects of relativity in a rigorous manner. The author Selwyn E Wright is a retired professor, former NASA and Stanford University Scientist, and Scientific Adviser to ONERA. The book is published by Trafford Publishing.